A fibroid is a growth of the muscle of the womb. Commonly found in women, fibroids can grow to large sizes. Usually they grow over time under the influence of the female hormone, estrogen. Depending on their size and position in the womb, they can lead to differring symptoms.
Everyone has 23 pairs of chromosomes. These contain the genetic codes that make up our genome and individual characteristics. There are many known changes that can occur on the chromosomes that can lead to a variety of abnormalities. Some are lethal and lead to miscarriages or stillbirth, others are compatible with life. However, in many babies born with such abnormalities, there are significant consequences to their well-being. Some may have mental retardation, multiple organ abnormalities like abnormal kidneys or hearts and so on.
Slapped Face or Slapped Cheek is a viral infection that is common in children. It is due to the Parvo B19 virus and affects young children. Found at times in epidemics in kindergarten, primary school or playgroups, it manifests as a cold with a rash on the face. Just like the child has been slapped!
Commonly called postmenopausal bleeding, this symptom is important as it may indicate that there is an underlying disorder.
The menopause occurs when the ovaries cease to function and stop their production of hormones. It is these hormones that drive the womb to thicken the lining and then shed it resulting in the periods that a woman gets. By the time women reach the ages of 50 – 60, the ovaries diminish their activities and eventually will cease to function altogether. At that time, periods will cease altogether. It is therefore unusual for women to experience bleeding after the menopause.
In late 2017 a new screening program for cancer of the cervix (neck of the womb) will replace our current Pap smear screening.
For many years we have depended on using the Pap smear to check for abnormal cells that may lead to the possible development of cervical cancer. It is well known that this form of screening had its limitations. The interpretation of the smear test could be affected by many factors not least of all vaginal infection, changes due to menopause and so on.